The Fighting Side of the Virtual World: The Effects of Violent War and Sports Games on Adolescent Aggression Behavior


Abstract views: 373 / PDF downloads: 206

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7487614

Keywords:

Aggression, internet addiction, sports, digital game addiction, adolescence

Abstract

The advancement in computer technology and the widespread use of the internet have made it easier for human beings to access information. However, this situation brings with it negative consequences. Individuals of all ages in the society are affected by these negative situations. However, adolescent children are more affected. Video games, which are especially popular among adolescent children, create disorders such as addiction, sedentary life, abusive speech habits and weakening of social skills. The aim of this study; The aim of this study is to examine the effect of social development-based education program on the behavior of adolescents who play violent digital games. Experimental design was used in the research. The aggression reduction program prepared by the researcher was given to the experimental group for four hours, two days a week; In total, it was applied for 40 hours. Before this program, the aggression, internet addiction, game addiction and resilience scores of the participants were examined for the pre-test. As a result of the research, a significant difference was observed between the pre-test and post-test results according to the findings obtained as a result of the analysis of Aggression, Internet Addiction and Game Addiction in the experimental group students who were applied aggression reduction program. The applied aggression reduction training caused a decrease in the aggressive behavior of the adolescents in the experimental group. At these ages when emotional development is very important, the importance of aggression and similar training has been seen once again. Psychological Resilience scores of the participants remained stable.

References

Akın, A. (2012). The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. Cyberpsychology Behavior And Social Networking, 15, 404 – 410.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2018). Media violence and the general aggression model. Journal of Social Issues, 74 (2), 386–413. doi:10.1111/josi.12275.

Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78(4), 772.

Anderson, C. A., & Ford, C. M. (1986). Affect of the game player: Short-term effects of highly and mildly aggressive video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 390-402.

Anderson, CA & Ford, CM. (1986). Oyuncunun etkisi: yüksek ve hafif agresif video oyunlarının kısa vadeli etkileri. Kişilik ve Sosyal Psikoloji Bülteni, 12,390-402.

Argan, M., ve Akın, E. (2007). Elektronik spor; özellikleri, kavram ve uygulamalarına yönelik kuramsal çerçeve, Akdeniz 4. Uluslararası Spor Bilimleri Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı, Sözel Bildiri, Antalya, Türkiye.

Arslan, G. (2015). Çocuk ve Genç Psikolojik Sağlamlık Ölçeğinin (ÇGPSÖ-12) psikometrik özellikleri: Geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 16(1), 1-12.

Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analyis. New York: Prentice Hall.

Bayraktar, F. (2001), İnternet Kullanımının Ergen Gelişimindeki Rolü. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Bilgi, A. (2005), “Bilgisayar oyunu oynayan ve oynamayan ilköğretim öğrencilerinin saldırganlık, depresyon ve yalnızlık düzeylerinin incelenmesi”, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Bowman, R. P., & Rotter, J. C. (1983). Computer games: Friend or foe? Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 18,25-34.

Burkhardt, J., & Lenhard, W. (2022). A meta-analysis on the longitudinal, age-dependent effects of violent video games on aggression. Media Psychology, 25(3), 499-512.

Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2014). Twenty-five years of research on violence in digital games and aggression revisited: A reply to Elson and Ferguson (2013). European Psychologist, 19(1), 47–55. doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000164.

Bushman, B., J. & Bryan G. (2010), “Violent Video Games Cause an Increase in Aggression Long After the Game Has Been Turned Off”, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(3), August, 1-4.

Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of personality and social psychology, 63(3), 452.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş., ve Demirel, F., (2013). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri (14. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınevi.

Calvert, S., L. & Siu-Lan T. (1994), “Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults. Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction Versus Observation”, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15 (1), pp. 125-139.

Chambers, J. H., & Ascione, F. R. (1987). The effects of prosocial and aggresssive videogames on children’s donating and helping, Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148,499-505.

Connor, D. F., & McLaughlin, T. J. (2006). Aggression and diagnosis in psychiatrically referred children. Child psychiatry and human development, 37(1), 1-14.

Cooper, J. & Diane, M. (1986), “Video Games and Aggression in Children”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, pp. 726–744.

Çakır, Ö. , Ayaş, T. ve Horzum, MB. (2011). Üniversite öğrencilerinin internet ve oyun bağımlılıklarının çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi (JFES) , 44 (2) , 95-118.

Çetinkaya, H. (1991), “Video oyunlarının çocuklarda saldırganlığa etkisi”, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Erdoğdu, Y. M. (2010). Öğrencilerin saldırganlık eğilimlerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmeleri(ss. 835-848). International Conference on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, sunulmuş bildiri.

Erkuş, A. (1994). Psikolojik Terimler Sözlüğü. Ankara: Doruk Yayınları.

Ferguson, C. J., & Wang, J. C. (2022). Aggressive video games are not a risk factor for future aggression in youth: A longitudinal study. In Key Topics in Parenting and Behavior (pp. 115-127). Springer, Cham.

Funk, J., B. (2004), Heidi Bechtoldt Baldacci; Tracie Pasold; Jennifer Baumgardner. “Violence Exposure in Real-life, Video Games, Television, Movies, and the Internet: Is There Desensitization?”, Journal of Adolescence, 23–39.

Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı (2021). E-spor Raporu. Retrieved March 17, 2021, from https://www.guvenlioyna.org.tr/dosya/7UOTx.pdf.

Griffiths, M. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance use, 10(4), 191-197.

Hamari, J. & Sjöblom, M. (2017). What is eSports and why do people watch it? Internet research, 27 (2).

Hopkins, K.D. & Weeks, D.L. (1990), “Tests for Normality and Measures of Skewness and Kurtosis: Their Place in Research Reporting”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50, 717-729.

Horzum, M.B., Ayas, T. ve Çakır-Balta, Ö. (2008). Çocuklar İçin Bilgisayar Oyun Bağımlılığı Ölçeği. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 3(30), 76-88.

https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/yasam/(2021)-yilinda-turkiyede-en-cok-gelir-elde-eden-oyunlar-aciklandi-1894481 Erişim tarihih: 01.05. 2022.

Imran, N., Zeshan, M., & Pervaiz, Z. (2020). Mental health considerations for children & adolescents in COVID-19 Pandemic. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 36(COVID19-S4), S67

Jabjone, S. (2008), “How Playing Violent Computer Games Affects Thai Children”, KKU Sci. Journal, 36 (Supplement), 212-226.

Jeong, H. A. (2011). The social status of aggressive students across contexts: The role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade. Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1699-710.

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2006). Yeni insan ve insanlar. İstanbul: Evrim Yayınları.

Kars, B. (2010). Şiddet İçerikli Dijital Oyunların Çocuklarda Saldırganlığına Etkisi, (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Kırsh, Steven (1998). Seeing The World Through Mortal Kombat-Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and Hostile Attribution Bias. Childhood. 5 (2), p.177- 184.

Kilci, A. K. (2019). Dijital spor oyunları motivasyon ölçeği (DSOMÖ): Türkçeye uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences-IJSETS, 6(1), 6-18.

Köksal, F. (1991). Denetim odağı ile saldırgan davranışlar arası ilişkiler. (Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi). Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum.

Liebenberg, L., Ungar, M. & LeBlanc, J. C. (2013). The CYRM-12: A brief measure of resilience. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 104(2), 131-135.

Lull, R. B., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). Immersed in violence: Presence mediates the effect of 3D violent video gameplay on angry feelings. Psychology of popular Media Culture, 5(2), 133–144. doi:10.1037/ppm0000062.

Madran, H. A. D. (2012). Buss-Perry saldırganlık Ölçeği’nin Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 24(2), 1-6.

Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: A longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 35(1), 75-89.

Nguyen, M. H., Hunsaker, A., & Hargittai, E. (2022). Older adults’ online social engagement and social capital: The moderating role of Internet skills. Information, Communication & Society, 25(7), 942-958.

O'Donnell, T. A., (1985). “Direct three-parameter Muskingum procedure incorporating lateral inflow”, Hydrol. Sci. ., 30, 479–496,

Olson, C., K., Lawrence, A., K., & Dorothy, E., W. (2008), “The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys‟ Perspectives”,Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol.23, No.1, 55-75.

Özcan, K. (2018). Motivasyonel Görüşme Tekniğine Dayalı Psikoeğitim Programının Çevrimiçi Oyun Bağımlılığına Etkisi. (Doktora tezi). YÖK Tez Merkezi veri tabanından erişildi (Tez No: 492292).

Özen, Y., Gülaçtı, F. ve Çıkılı, Y. (2004). Saldırganlığın psikolojik-kültürel boyutu ve vandalizm. Fırat Üniversitesi Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi Araştırmaları (DAUM) Dergisi, 3(1), 144-149.

Öztürk, H. B., Ilgar, M. Z. ve Öztürk, E. E. (2015). Aile içi şiddetin akademik başarı ve saldırganlıkla ilişkisi. İZÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 3(5), 115-168.

PC Data (1998). Press release: 'PC Data Releases Video game statistics. Company press release'.

PC Gamer (2001). '3dfx Goes Kaput: NVIDIA buys out 3D-card maker', Mar., p. 27.

Peters, S., & Crone, E. A. (2017). Increased striatal activity in adolescence benefits learning. Nature Communications, 8(1), 1-9.

TESFED (2019). E-spor çalıştayı raporu. Retrieved January 21, 2021, from http://tesfed.gov.tr/uploads/databanks/espor-calistayi-raporu-tr.pdf.

TUİK (Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu). (2009). Türkiye İstatistik Yıllığı, Ankara: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Matbaa.

Tuzgöl, M. (2000). Ana-baba tutumları farklı lise öğrencilerinin saldırganlık düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 2(14), 39-48.

Türk Dil Kurumu. (2019). Türkçe sözlük. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları.

Ulusoy, O. (2007), “Ergenlerde Bilisim Teknolojileri Kullanımı ve Saldırganlık İliskisi” (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Adana.

Von Salisch, M., Vogelgesang, J., Kristen, A., & Oppl, C. (2011). Preference for violent electronic games and aggressive behavior among children: The beginning of the downward spiral?. Media Psychology, 14(3), 233-258.

Young, K.S. (1998). http://netaddiction.com/internet-addiction-test/.

Zengin, F. K. , Keçeci, G. ve Kırılmazkaya, G. (2012). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin nükleer enerji sosyo-bilimsel konusunu online argümantasyon yöntemi ile öğrenmesi. Education Sciences, 7 (2) , 647-654. Retrieved from https://dergipark. org.tr/en/pub/nwsaedu/issue/19816/211957.

Zhang, Q., Cao, Y., & Tian, J. (2021). Effects of violent video games on aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(1), 5-10.

Published

2022-12-28

How to Cite

KELEŞ, A., & AKAROĞLU, E. G. (2022). The Fighting Side of the Virtual World: The Effects of Violent War and Sports Games on Adolescent Aggression Behavior. International Journal of Holistic Health, Sports and Recreation, 1(1), 17–38. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7487614