The Effect of Balance Training Protocols on Alpine Skiing: A Systematic Review of Dry-Land and On-Snow Interventions on balance performance

Abstract views: 67 / PDF downloads: 48


  • Alexandru ZADIC Babes-Bolyai University, Romania
  • Florina Emilia GROSU Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Romania
  • Vlad Teodor GROSU Technical University, Faculty of Automotive, Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Romania



Balance training, proprioceptive training, neuromuscular training, dry-land training, on-snow training


The role of balance as a fundamental motor skill in alpine skiing is unquestionable, but the literature appears scant concerning specific studies on balance training, its outcomes, and particulars such as training intensity, duration, and frequency in relation to alpine skiing. This comprehensive review draws upon articles discovered via a systematic, computerized search of prominent databases including Science Direct, Science Citation Index, Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals, and Academic Search Complete spanning the period 1991-2020. Given the absence of a universally accepted terminology for training encompassing balance exercises, our search incorporated articles discussing balance training, neuromuscular training, proprioceptive training, core stability training, and postural control within the context of alpine skiing, employing a Boolean search strategy. From the 437 articles found, only 10 satisfactorily met our inclusion criteria. This systematic review sought to clarify the balance training protocols, specifically those involving dry-land or on-snow interventions, which improve balance performance in healthy alpine skiers. A majority of the reviewed articles attested to a beneficial effect of balance training protocols on balance performance in alpine skiing.


Andersen, R. E., & Montgomery, D. L. (1991). Physiologic monitoring of alpine ski racers. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation, 2(2), 141–147.

Bernier, J. N., & Perrin, D. H. (1998). Effect of Coordination Training on Proprioception of the Functionally Unstable Ankle. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(4), 264–275.

Brachman, A., Kamieniarz, A., Michalska, J., Pawłowski, M., Słomka, K. J., & Juras, G. (2017). Balance Training Programs in Athletes – A Systematic Review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 58(1), 45–64.

Camliguney, A. F., Ramazanoglu, N., Atilgan, O. E., Yilmaz, S., & Uzun, S. (2012). The Effects of Intensive Ski Training on Postural Balance of Athletes. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(2), 10.

Camliguney, A. F. (2013). The effects of short-term ski trainings on dynamic balance performance and vertical jump in adolescents. Academic Journals Vol. 8 (10)

Cigrovski, V., Franjko, I., Rupčić, T., Baković, M., & Božić, I. (2017). IS specific motor test enough to evaluate new alpine ski knowledge in ski begginers ? ANNALES KINESIOLOGIAE 8, 2017, 1

Cigrovski, V., Franjko, I., Rupčić, T., Baković, M., & Matković, B. (2016). Correlation between balance, specific alpine skiing knowledge and situational efiiciency in alpine skiing. Acta Kinesiologica 10 (2016) Suppl 1: 66-70

Čillík, I., & Rázusová, Z. (2014). Influence of a specialized training program on the changes in the level of balance abilities in 8–10 year old alpine skiers. Acta Gymnica, 44(1), 15–22. Scopus®.

Firlus, W. (2018). Effects of skiing training on selected parameters of postural balance among students of The Opole University of Technology. Journal of Physical Education & Health, 2018, vol. 7 (11), 39-49

Gruber, M., & Gollhofer, A. (2004). Impact of sensorimotor training on the rate of force development and neural activation. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(1–2), 98–105.

Hébert-Losier, K., Supej, M., & Holmberg, H.-C. (2014). Biomechanical Factors Influencing the Performance of Elite Alpine Ski Racers. Sports Medicine, 44(4), 519–533.

Hrysomallis, C. (2011). Balance Ability and Athletic Performance: Sports Medicine, 41(3), 221–232.

Hydren, J. R., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., DUNN-LEWIS, C., Comstock, B. A., Szivak, T. K., Hooper, D. R., Denegar, C. R., & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Performance changes during a week long high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athlets. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(4), 924–937. Academic Search Complete. DOI: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e31827a9c62

Maffiuletti, N. A., Impellizzeri, F., Rampinini, E., Bizzini, M., & Mognoni, P. (2006). Letter to the Editors—Is Aerobic Power Really Critical for Success in Alpine Skiing? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(2), 166–167.

Mahieu, N. N., Witvrouw, E., de Voorde, D. V., & Michilsens, D. (2006). Improving Strength and Postural Control in Young Skiers: Whole-Body Vibration Versus Equivalent Resistance Training. 8.

Male, B., Franjko, I., & Kuna, D. (2013). Relations of Biomotor Structures and Performance of Technical Elements of Alpine Skiing in Croatian Ski Instructors. Coll. Antropol., 6.

Malliou, P., Amoutzas, K., Theodosiou, A., Gioftsidou, A., Mantis, K., Pylianidis, T., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2004). Proprioceptive training for learning downhill skiing. Perceptualand Motor Skills, 2004,99, 149-154.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097.

Müller, E., & Schwameder, H. (2003). Biomechanical aspects of new techniques in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(9), 679–692.

Noe, F., & Paillard, T. (2005). Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing? Br J Sports Med 2005;39:835–837. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018127

Paillard, T. (2002). Are there differences in postural regulation according to the level of competition in judoists? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(4), 304–305.

Paterno, M. V., Myer, G. D., Ford, K. R., & Hewett, T. E. (2004). Neuromuscular Training Improves Single-Limb Stability in Young Female Athletes. RESEARCH REPORT, 34(6), 12 DOI: 10.2519/jospt.2004.34.6.305

Patterson, C., Raschner, C., & Platzer, H.-P. (2009). Power Variables and Bilateral Force Differences During Unloaded and Loaded Squat Jumps in High Performance Alpine Ski Racers: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(3), 779–787.

Perrin, P., Deviterne, D., Hugel, F., & Perrot, C. (2002). Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotor adaptabilities involved in balance control. Gait & Posture, 15(2), 187–194.

Raschner, C., Müller, L., Patterson, C., Platzer, H. P., Ebenbichler, C., Luchner, R., Lembert, S., & Hildebrandt, C. (2013). Current performance testing trends in junior and elite Austrian alpine ski, snowboard and ski cross racers. Sport-Orthopädie - Sport-Traumatologie - Sports Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 29(3), 193–202.

Raschner, C., Platzer, H.-P., Patterson, C., Werner, I., Huber, R., & Hildebrandt, C. (2012). The relationship between ACL injuries and physical fitness in young competitive ski racers: A 10-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(15), 1065–1071.

Ružić, L., Petračić, T., & Rađenović, O. (2011). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FIELD AND THE LABORATORY BALANCE TESTS AND SKIING PERFORMANCE. 6. Hrvat. Športskomed. Vjesn. 2011; 26: 52-57

Słomka, K. J., Pawłowski, M., Michalska, J., Kamieniarz, A., Brachman, A., & Juras, G. (2018). Effects of 8-Week Complex Balance Training in Young Alpine Skiers: A Pilot Study. BioMed Research International, 1–9. Academic Search Complete.

Staniszewski, M., Zybko, P., & Wiszomirska, I. (2016). Influence of a nine-day alpine ski training programme on the postural stability of people with different levels of skills. 8.

Taube, W., Gruber, M., & Gollhofer, A. (2008). Spinal and supraspinal adaptations associated with balance training and their functional relevance. Acta Physiol, 16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01850 x

Turnbull, J. R., Kilding, A. E., & Keogh, J. W. L. (2009). Physiology of alpine skiing: Physiology and alpine skiing: a review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(2), 146–155.

Vitale, J. A., La Torre, A., Banfi, G., & Bonato, M. (2018). Effects of an 8-week body-weight neuromuscular training on dynamic balance and vertical jump performance in elite junior skiing athletes: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of strenght and conditioning research, 32(4), 911–920.

Vuillerme, N., & Nougier, V. (2004). Attentional demand for regulating postural sway: The effect of expertise in gymnastics. Brain Research Bulletin, 63(2), 161–165.

Wojtyczek, B., Pasławska, M., & Raschner, C. (2014). Changes in the Balance Performance of Polish Recreational Skiers after Seven Days of Alpine Skiing. Journal of Human Kinetics, 44, 29–40.

Wülker, N., & Rudert, M. (1999). Fibulare Kapsel-Band-Rupturen. Der Orthopäde, 28(6), 476.

Zech, A., Hübscher, M., Vogt, L., Banzer, W., Hänsel, F., & Pfeifer, K. (2010). Balance Training for Neuromuscular Control and Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review. Journal of Athletic Training, 45(4), 392–403.




How to Cite

ZADIC, A., GROSU, F. E., & GROSU, V. T. (2023). The Effect of Balance Training Protocols on Alpine Skiing: A Systematic Review of Dry-Land and On-Snow Interventions on balance performance. International Journal of Holistic Health, Sports and Recreation, 2(1), 28–41.